UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 7: Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935

UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 7: Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935

Language: English

Pages: 889

ISBN: 2:00286503

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Volume VII of the UNESCO General History of Africa examines the period of partition, conquest and occupation from the beginning of the ‘European Scramble for Africa’ to the Italian fascist invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. Throughout the volume, the focus is directed towards the responses of Africans themselves to the challenge of colonialism.

The first two chapters survey African attitudes and readiness on the eye of the colonial era, and the background to European imperial ambitions. The next seven chapters discuss African initiatives and reactions in the face of partition and conquest up to the First World War. A general overview is followed by more detailed regional analyses.

Chapters 13 to 21 concern the impact of economic and social aspects of colonial systems in Africa from 1919 until 1935: the operation of the colonial economy in the former French, Belgian, Portuguese and British zones and North Africa; the emergence of new social structures and demographic patterns and the role of religion and the arts in Africa during the colonial period. The final section traces the growth of anti-colonial movements, the strengthening of African political nationalism and the interaction between black Africa and blacks of the New World. Liberia and Ethiopia are discussed in special chapters.

Each chapter is illustrated with black and white photographs, maps and figures. The text is fully annotated and there is an extensive bibliography of works relating to the period.

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or undeserving of study n o w . A n d in fact it has been studied a good deal in the last twenty years. Most of this research of the last two decades has been sober, detailed, scholarly, not avoiding the ambiguities of m a n y of the resistances. But most of it has been based upon, or used to demonstrate, three dogmatic assumptions, which I believe still to be essentially true, even though each has been modified by recent research and analysis. It has been argued, first, that the fact of African

the key towns of Kordofân province. Consequently, the Egyptian government organized an expedition that was composed of the remnants of ' U r a W s soldiers and c o m m a n d e d by a British army officer, Hicks Pasha. T h e Ansär completely annihilated their enemy at Shaykän's forest in the neighbourhood of al-'Obeid. 25 T h e victory was a great boost for the M a h d ï and his revolution. While m a n y Sudanese joined the revolution, delegates from some Muslim countries came to congratulate the

Colonial Domination 1880-1 gjj (4) W h y was there division in the resistance movement which could not be overcome even at times of the greatest danger? These questions among others help to bring out the reactions of the inhabitants during the so-called pacification phase. T h e failure of African initiatives and resistance In spite of the strong determination of the people of the Maghrib to maintain their sovereignty and way of life, and despite the protracted nature of the resistance, the whole

both military and diplomatic, though at times there was withdrawal, non-co-operation or passivity. T h e Nandi in Kenya, for instance, resisted militarily the construction of the railway through their territory. O f all the peoples of Kenya, they put u p the strongest and longest military resistance to British i m perialism; it began in the 1890s and did not end until their leader was murdered by the British commanders in 1905, on his way to the negotiations which had been treacherously arranged.

Harry Johnston w h o noted that 'he [Mumia] from the veryfirstregarded British officials and the idea of a British Protectorate with hearty good-will. His influence through all the troubled times of Uganda had done m u c h to ensure the safety of British communications with the east coast'.20 T h e same sentiments were echoed by another colonial official on the occasion of M u m i a ' s death in 1949. The then district commissioner who, with other high government officials, attended the burial

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