Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror (New Approaches to African History)
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Foreign Intervention in Africa chronicles the foreign political and military interventions in Africa during the periods of decolonization (1956-1975) and the Cold War (1945-1991), as well as during the periods of state collapse (1991-2001) and the "global war on terror" (2001-2010). In the first two periods, the most significant intervention was extra-continental. The United States, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and the former colonial powers entangled themselves in countless African conflicts. During the period of state collapse, the most consequential interventions were intra-continental. African governments, sometimes assisted by powers outside the continent, supported warlords, dictators, and dissident movements in neighboring countries and fought for control of their neighbors' resources. The global war on terror, like the Cold War, increased the foreign military presence on the African continent and generated external support for repressive governments. In each of these cases, external interests altered the dynamics of Africa's internal struggles, escalating local conflicts into larger conflagrations, with devastating effects on African peoples.
42–43 Tanganyika see Tanzania Tanzania xii, 28, 73, 80, 83, 91, 129, 207, 211, 215 see also Frontline States aid to liberation movements 104, 113, 119, 134 British military intervention 32 Zanzibar revolt 32 Taylor, Charles 199–203 see also Liberia; National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) ; Revolutionary United Front (RUF) terrorism xiii, 14, 110, 113, 195, 213, 218–222, 229 see also al-Qaeda; global war on terror financing 215–216 foreign terrorist organizations 205, 207,
in the Third World. Between 1959 and 1965, the alliance broke apart as the Soviets criticized Mao Zedong's leadership and policies while Mao decried Khrushchev's goal of “peaceful coexistence” with the West as counterrevolutionary and challenged Soviet political and economic models. In 1959, Khrushchev abrogated an agreement to provide China with modern military technology. In 1960, he recalled more than 1,000 Soviet scientists and industrial specialists from China, while Beijing declared its
501–27. For Egyptian-Soviet relations, see Karen Dawisha, Soviet Foreign Policy towards Egypt (New York: Macmillan, 1979); O. M. Smolansky, “Moscow and the Suez Crisis, 1956: A Reappraisal,” Political Science Quarterly 80, no. 4 (December 1965): 581–605; and Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, Khrushchev's Cold War: The Inside Story of an American Adversary (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006). For the historical ramifications of the Suez Crisis, see Wm. Roger Louis and Roger Owen, eds., Suez
Britain, the United States, South Africa, and the Central African Federation were deeply embroiled in the conflict, largely in support of the secessionist movement in Katanga.1 Regional political interests also came into play as the white-ruled regimes of the Central African Federation and South Africa, along with Portugal as the dominant neighboring colonial power, attempted to contain the spread of radical nationalism by undermining the Congo's central government. This chapter examines the
Campaign, Eritrea became a British protectorate. When World War II ended, the UN was charged with disposing of Italy's African colonies. It determined that Libya and Somaliland would be granted independence, while Eritrea would be joined in a federation with Ethiopia, despite significant popular sentiment in Eritrea for independence. Although the Soviet Union, a number of Arab states, and other UN members also favored Eritrean independence, U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles argued that