Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, Volume 2: D-L
Pamela Korsmeyer, Henry R. Kranzler
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
A follow-up to the 2001 award-winning second edition, the Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior, 3rd edition, will update and expand upon the social, medical, legal, and political issues related to drugs and alcohol and associated behaviors. The rapid pace of research in the fields of substance abuse and non-substance abuse addictions since publication of the 2nd edition warrants a new exploration of the field. In the MacMillan Reference USA tradition, a board of noted scholars in the fields of drugs, alcohol, and addiction bring new scholarship within the discipline to the set alongside discussion of topics often mentioned in today's media. Coverage of these concepts beyond the U.S. - through the European Union, Asia, and beyond - will significantly expand. Statistics throughout the set will be revisited and thoroughly updated, and the A-Z entry arrangement will be maintained. A robust cumulative index will complete the work.
Science and policy for European Control of Tobacco). (2004). Tobacco or health in the European Union, past, present, and future. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Available from http://ec. europa.eu/. Bitton, A., Neuman, M., & Glantz, S. (2002). Tobacco industry attempts to subvert European Union tobacco advertising legislation. The Lancet, 359, 1323–1330. Cnossen, S. (2006). Tobacco taxation in the European Union. CESifo working paper no. 1718, May 2006.
ophthalmology, which led to the initial papers on local or topical anesthesia. There is a semantic problem in understanding these claims. Almost all investigators of cocaine had noticed the numbing properties of the drug when placed on the tongue. The idea that this property had a practical use in ophthalmological surgery does belong to Carl Koller, a friend and colleague of Freud, who did the proper experiments and published them promptly. The controversy about the discovery between Koller and
behavioral outcomes (see Sells, 1975). It was found that drug use and criminal activities decreased significantly during treatment, including outpatient as well as residential programs. More important, the effects continued after treatment ended. Some 6,402 clients located across the United States were selected for follow-up an average of three years after leaving DARP treatment (and 83 percent were relocated). Methadone maintenance, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free programs were
extensive use of alcohol. Multiple abuse of psychotherapeutic agents has decreased, so less than 10 percent of clients report that they regularly use these agents as opposed to treatment services. Outpatient programs have fewer early dropouts, but this may reflect better screening and longer, more extensive intake processes. The influence of cost-containment measures and managed care became evident with shortened durations of treatment for short-term inpatients. Short-term inpatient programs also
that the reinforcing or rewarding properties of nicotine may result from an activation of ascending limbic neurons that release the neurotransmitter dopamine (i.e., in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, which has been implicated in the reinforcing properties of a variety of drugs, including stimulants and opiates). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DRUGS, ALCOHOL & ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR, 3RD EDITION 89 DRUG TYPES As stated above, tobacco smoking has been associated with a wide variety of serious health