Understanding TCP/IP

Understanding TCP/IP

Alena Kabelova, Libor Dostalek

Language: English

Pages: 478


Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This book is suitable for the novice and experienced system administrators, programmers, and anyone who would like to learn how to work with the TCP/IP protocol suite. It can be read even by those who have little background in networking

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supposes that it has detected a character being transported. It keeps on sampling and considers everything in front of the stop bits as the bits of the transported character. The data bits of the transported character are located between the start bit and stop bits and, additionally, there can be a parity bit providing a simple checksum of the transported character. Asynchronous transmission has the advantage of the receiver being able to adjust itself with a lot of tolerance to the transmitter

functions and, as a spice, a random string challenge is also added to the grinder. 98 Chapter 4 RFC 3079 derives keys for use with Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) and specifies the derivation of encryption keys in the case of authentication by MS CHAP version 1 and MS CHAP version 2 protocols. RFC 3079 also specifies the derivation of encryption keys in the case of authentication by EAPTLS. If we use EAP-TLS authentication, we already have the so-called master secret created on both

company. This mechanism was used, for example, by the DECnet phase IV protocol. The network card can use a globally dedicated address or a locally managed address. Besides these dedicated addresses there are also broadcasts and multicasts. The broadcast (with an address composed of 48 1s) is aimed at all LAN stations. The multicast (with the lowest bit of the first byte set to 1) is aimed at only some LAN stations, i.e., the ones that accept the included address. Figure 4.39: Destination link

are several reasons for this: • • • • • Mobility—the user is not limited by the cable and socket. Fast and easy setup. Lower overall cost of building the network (no need to build expensive cable distribution infrastructure). Extendibility by choosing a suitable antenna and setting its polarization appropriately. In this way both the capacity and territory covered can be extended. Roaming is an important WLAN feature. If roaming is set, mobile stations can freely move within an area covered by

DCE). It is engaged, however, in the frame exchange between DTEs. (It relies on the physical layer to handle the DCE issue.) The following figure illustrates that different protocols can be used for each end of the connection on the physical layer. In our case, one of the ends uses the X.21 protocol while the other end uses the V.35 protocol. This rule is valid not only for serial links, but also for local networks. In local networks, you are more likely to encounter more complicated setups in

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