Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
Andrew S. Natsios
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For thirty years Sudan has been a country in crisis, wracked by near-constant warfare between the north and the south. But on July 9, 2011, South Sudan became an independent nation. As Sudan once again finds itself the focus of international attention, former special envoy to Sudan and director of USAID Andrew Natsios provides a timely introduction to the country at this pivotal moment in its history. Focusing on the events of the last 25 years, Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® sheds light on the origins of the conflict between northern and southern Sudan and the complicated politics of this volatile nation. Natsios gives readers a first-hand view of Sudan's past as well as an honest appraisal of its future. In the wake of South Sudan's independence, Natsios explores the tensions that remain on both sides. Issues of citizenship, security, oil management, and wealth-sharing all remain unresolved. Human rights issues, particularly surrounding the ongoing violence in Darfur, likewise still clamor for solutions. Informative and accessible, this book introduces readers to the most central issues facing Sudan as it stands on the brink of historic change.
What Everyone Needs to Know® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.
history, principally that of the last two centuries. European fascination with Sudan dates from attempts in the eighteenth century to find the source of the Nile, one of the longest rivers in the world, which flows south to north through Sudan, dividing the country into two parts, east and west. Egyptian, Turkish, and British adventurers and traders in the nineteenth century created Sudan out of hundreds of Arab and African tribes in the region and several sultanates and kingdoms, setting the
Egypt. Dinka—The largest tribe in Sudan and the dominant tribe in South Sudan, numbering between 3 to 4 million at the turn of the twenty-first century. John Garang and Salva Kiir are both Dinkas. First Civil War—The first civil war (also called the Anyanya war) between the North and South started in 1955 months before independence and ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972. Funj—A federation of tribes that formed the Funj Sultanate in eastern Sudan along the Ethiopian and Eritrean
southerners, approved the construction of the oil refinery in the North, and the otherwise divided government officials (all from the Three Tribes) united behind his decision. Southern students took to the streets in mass protests after the decision was announced. The 1978 oil discovery complicated another simmering dispute—the demarcation of the North–South Border—that had been resolved on paper (but which Khartoum cynically ignored in practice) by the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement. The border
by commanders in the SAF. (Later, in 2007, he was made a major general in the SAF to ensure his continuing loyalty to the regime that began wavering because he feared Khartoum intended to turn him over to the ICC for prosecution for the atrocities in Darfur to save themselves.) In August and September 2002, two conferences were convened with Khartoum’s support—one in Nyertete and the other in Kaa, both in South Darfur. The first produced a statement that diplomatically assigned blame to both
Darfur, which cost $2 billion to maintain in 2007 alone. (The AU, a successor to the Organization for African Unity, seeks to create a more integrated Africa on the model of the European Union, though they are a very long way from achieving that.) The third Darfur rebellion has recently obscured the far more lethal North–South wars, spanning twenty-two years in their most recent conflict (two North–South civil wars have taken place—the first between 1955 and 1972 and the second, 1983–2005),