Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures

Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures

Jean L. Jacobson

Language: English

Pages: 375

ISBN: 0387243771

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

In the beginning, for me, winemaking was a romanticized notion of putting grape juice into a barrel and allowing time to perform its magic as you sat on the veranda watching the sunset on a Tuscan landscape. For some small wineries, this notion might still ring true, but for the majority of wineries commercially producing quality wines, the reality of winemaking is far more complex. The persistent evolution of the wine industry demands continual advan- ments in technology and education to sustain and promote quality winem- ing. The sciences of viticulture, enology, and wine chemistry are becoming more intricate and sophisticated each year. Wine laboratories have become an integral part of the winemaking process, necessitating a knowledgeable staff possessing a multitude of skills. Science incorporates the tools that new-age winemakers are utilizing to produce some of the best wines ever made in this multibillion dollar trade. A novice to enology and wine chemistry can find these subjects daunting and intimidating. Whether you are a home winemaker, a new winemaker, an enology student, or a beginning-to-intermediate laboratory technician, p- ting all the pieces together can take time. As a winemaker friend once told me, “winemaking is a moving target. ” Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures was written for the multitude of people entering the wine industry and those that wish to learn about wine chemistry and enology.

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Undiluted: Contact approved disposal facility for incineration Diluted: Small quantities dilute to <1%, flush with copious amount of water to sewer Undiluted: Hazardous waste ID-U151, contact approved disposal reclamation center Undiluted: Contact approved disposal facility for disposal Diluted: Small amounts dilute to <1%, neutralize, flush with copious amount of water to sewer Phosphoric acid (concentrated) CAS# 7664-38-2 (continued ) 2.4 Chemical Hazards 35 TABLE 2.4. (Continued )

as a beaker, weighing dish (commonly called boats), weighing funnel, flask, or weighing paper whose weight must be accounted for before a measurement is made. To determine the weight of the vessel, place the weighing vessel onto the scale and TARE. TARE means a weight removed, or simply, the weight of the container that is not part of the substance to be measured. Clean glassware is critical. Glassware is considered clean when it maintains a continuous film of distilled water over the entire

molecular level based on the formulas found in the previous subsection. Always obtain the wine temperature and EtOH content to calculate precise free SO2 additions. For general calculation, using the standard 1.81 pKa seems to work well for most wines with alcohol contents around 14% v/v at cellar temperatures of 13–15˚C. Tanks can be maintained at higher temperatures around 19˚C, where the pKa value for a 14% v/v wine would be approximately 2.06. Sulfur dioxide is added to the wine or must in

arsenite in conjunction with H2O2 has also been used in high SO2 wines (Ough et al., 1988). Unfortunately, both of these solutions are a health hazard. The common method in use today is back-titration of the distillate with iodine. Legal limits for VA in the United States are listed as exclusive of SO2, which means the SO2 component is removed. The majority of wines have a VA below the legal limit, so most wine laboratories do not remove the excess SO2 contribution unless the VA is close to the

Alcohol Fermentation Yeast fermentation of sugar into ethanol is a very complex process involving many biochemical reactions. The scope of this section is to give an overview of fermentation, the reader is well advised to seek further information for a more complete understanding of this life process. Yeasts (fungi), bacterium, molds, and so forth are micro-organisms; in other words, unable to be seen by the naked eye. Yeasts are classified as a fungus, and because of their life cycle and the

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