Fueling Our Future: An Introduction to Sustainable Energy

Fueling Our Future: An Introduction to Sustainable Energy

Robert L. Evans

Language: English

Pages: 193


Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

One of the most important issues facing humanity today is the prospect of global climate change, brought about primarily by our prolific energy use and heavy dependence on fossil fuels. Fueling Our Future: An Introduction to Sustainable Energy provides a concise overview of current energy demand and supply patterns. It presents a balanced view of how our reliance on fossil fuels can be changed over time so that we have a much more sustainable energy system in the near future. Written in a non-technical and accessible style, the book will appeal to a wide range of readers without scientific backgrounds.

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countries in 2004) agreed to obtain the 8% reduction in GHG emissions on average across the whole community. Subsequent negotiations between the EU countries has resulted in the UK target for the period 2008–2012 being set at 12.5% below the 1990 level, for example. The Kyoto Protocol was subject to final ratification by the countries who were ‘‘parties’’ to the convention, and the protocol was to enter into force on the 90th day after the date on which not less than 55 parties to the convention,

installed KWe. In Europe the generation III EPR 1600 (European Pressure Reactor) is a 1600 MWe design (Framatome, 2005) developed jointly by a consortium of Framatome and Siemens. This is an evolution of the PWR units previously 125 126 Fueling Our Future constructed in France and Germany, with the emphasis again being on modular construction in order to improve safety and reduce construction time and capital costs. Olkiliuto 3 in Finland is the first EPR 1600 plant to be ordered, and is now

automotive engineers so that the hybrid vehicle has a fuel efficiency about 50% greater than that of a conventional vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine alone. Drivers also like driving hybrid vehicles because the electric motor is able to provide very strong acceleration due to its characteristic high torque at low speed. Hybrid vehicles have been very successfully introduced into the market, initially in compact cars, but the technology is now spreading to larger cars and sport

benefits and impacts of hybrid electric vehicle options. Electric Power Research Institute Report 1000349. gasoline is used, and the fuel-cycle energy represents the same proportion of total energy used in the CV. However, because of the much higher efficiency of the HEV 0 compared with the CV, the total emissions are reduced by nearly 30%. By moving to the HEV 20 vehicle, the total CO2 emissions are now just over half those of the CV, while for the HEV 60 they are reduced by nearly 60%.

carriers that are of significance today; refined petroleum products, natural gas, and electricity. Hydrogen, often billed erroneously as an energy source of the future, is in fact an energy carrier, and not a primary source of energy. We shall discuss this issue in more detail in a subsequent chapter, but for the moment we simply show it as a possible energy carrier, as it is not presently used in this way to any significant degree. Another important feature illustrated in Figure 2.1 is the

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