Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia of African History is a new A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent. With entries ranging from the earliest evolution of human beings in Africa to the beginning of the twenty-first century, this comprehensive three volume Encyclopedia is the first reference of this scale and scope. Also includes 99 maps.
of Africa than many imports and the post-apartheid 102 government has continued to seek export markets for this important industry. During the Cold War the primary sources of arms for African states were the two superpower blocs. They, in their turn, were keen to support their clients and woo new allies. As a consequence Africa became an increasingly armed and militarized continent. This process was accelerated from the mid-1970s onward due to the revolutionary wars of liberation in southern
NORTH AFRICA For the next 150 years, North Africa was largely left to itself, and Phoenician culture continued, and even expanded, among the North African population. Punic alphabetic writing was appropriated by the Berbers at some point, and used in different styles, of which only the archaic tifnagh script of the Tuareg persists to the present. Rome declared the realm of Carthage the new province Africa (named after its indigenous people), constructed the fossa regia (royal ditch) to demarcate
kingdom under his control. Ali is supposed to have reconquered Kanem and reestablished control over the Saharan trade, while making war against Songhai to the west over the east-west trade routes across the Sudan. His reign was followed by a series of others no less notable; these subsequent mais maintained Borno at an apogee of greatness. The last mai to reign in the fifteenth century was Idris Katagarmabe. By that time, Borno had secured its trading contacts along the Kawar-Fazzan route. For
embark on the unification of Borno, and consolidate his authority in the region. In the realm of religion, Idris Alooma saw the spread of Islam as a duty and a political necessity. He made Islam a state religion for all the notables of Borno as well as his subjects. His own pious conduct set an example for his subjects and encouraged strict adherence to the tenets of Islam. In the ninth year of his reign, Idris Alooma undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca, and there he built a hostel in the holy city
Paris the two founded and edited a journal called al-’Urwa al-Wuthqa (The Firm Bond; a reference to the Quran), which called upon Muslims worldwide to liberate themselves from European imperialism and the despotic governments under which many of them lived. The journal, which lasted only eight months, had a profound effect on many Muslim writers and activists of the era, including the Syrian Rashid Rida, who became ‘Abouh’s biographer and one of his most important disciples. In 1885 ‘Abouh